Category «Notes»

Consumer Protection Act, 1986

consumer-protection-act

CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT AND ITS NECESSITY A consumer may be regarded as a person who purchases goods and services for self-consumption, and also includes the use of goods for his occupations. Now, the concept of consumerism is not a new concept. It was prevalent since time immemorial. Consumer- A person who purchases goods and services …

Indian Penal Code (I.P.C.)

indian-penal-code

The Indian Penal Code came into existence with effect from 1-1-1862. In the year 1833, the first law commission was constituted under the chairmanship of Lord Mancanlley,  Mecloyed, Enderson and Millet were the members of the law commission. The commission has prepared the draft of Indian Penal Code. Before we study the Act, it is …

Consideration: Contract Law

consideration

Presence of consideration is one of the essentials of a valid contract. The subject of certain exception, the general rule in India is that “an agreement, without consideration, is void”. MEANING (a) Consideration is a quid pro quo, i.e., something in return, it may be – (i)something benefit right, interest, loss or profit that may …

Free Consent – Contract Law

free-consent

One of the essentials of a valid contract mentioned in section 10 is that the parties should enter into the contract with their ‘Free consent’. According to section 13. Two persons are said to have consented when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. In English law, this is called ‘consensus–ad-idem’. Effect …

Capacity To Contract

capacity-to-contract

PARTIES UNABLE TO ENTER INTO A CONTRACT Minor A person of unsound mind A person disqualified by law Who is competent to make a contract: Section  11. Every person is competent to contract who is of the age of majority according to the law to which he is subject, who is of sound mind and …

Types Of Contracts in India

types-of-contracts

There are four types of contracts:- On the basis of creation On the basis of validity On the basis of execution On the basis of liability   CONTRACTS ON THE BASIS OF CREATION Express contract:- A contract made by the word spoken or written. According to Sec. 9 in so far as the proposal or …

Indian Contract Act, 1872

indian-contract-act

Introduction to Indian Contract Act The law relating to contracts in India is contained in the Indian Contract Act, 1872. The Act was passed by British India and is based on the principles of English common law. It is applicable to all the states of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir. It determines …

Environmental Protection Law

environment-protection-law

What is Environmental Protection Law? Environmental Protection Law is the sine qua non for growth and development of any nation. In the absence of effective/appropriate legal machinery, environmental standards cannot be maintained. Many states, as part of national concern, took steps to increase the scope and effectiveness of protection laws. India passed about 200 Central …

Environment Protection Act, 1986

environment-protection-act

The burning problem of the present day is environmental pollution. In pursuance of the Stockholm Declarations, 1972, several legislations were passed for protection and improvement of the environment. According to N.D. Tiwari Committee’s Report, nearly 200 Central and State legislation are passed in India. Prominent among them are 12, of which the present Environment Protection …

Environmental Court Notes

environmental-court-notes

Environmental pollution is a serious threat to the survival of the human race and hence the State is shouldered with the responsibility to eradicate the same by-passing appropriate legislation and establishing the environmental court. The Stockholm Declaration 1972, also envisaged the passing of environmental legislation and establishment of special courts by all States to deal …