A research design is a research planning of the proposed research project to check the veracity of the hypothesis.
V. Young:– He has defined it as a plan of action for collecting and analyzing the data in an economic, efficient and relevant manner.
Miller:- Defined it as the planned sequence of the entire process involved in conducting a research study.
Objectives of research design:
- Research design makes research efficient by planning & formulating an outline of the research work.
- The aim is to economic and minimizes time energy and cost that would’ve been wasted if it was not present.
- It provides an accurate idea of where research has reached in his research journey.
Questions/ consideration that should be undertaken it a research design:
- What is the study about?
- Why is the study being made?
- wherever are going to be the study be carried out?
- What type of data is required?
- Where can the required data be found?
- What periods of your time can the study include?
- How will the data be analyzed?
- What will be the sample design?
- What technique of knowledge assortment is going to be used?
- In what vogue can the report be prepared?
What is the significance or importance of the research design?
- Research design provides the blueprint of research: A research faces many problems like what sample is to be taken, what method of data collection is to be used why is study being made and so on research plan or the blueprint minimize of all these problems of the research because all the decisions are taken beforehand..
- It dictates the boundary of research.
- The research design also offers a systematic approach to the research so that all step is executed in the right sequence.
- It offers a guide that direct the research action which reduces time and cost. Research design helps research to organize his idea in a proper form.
- Research design helps in the use of resources effectively with less no of error.
- It enabled the research to control the research operation most effectively.
What is the need for research design?
It is very important that it should be efficient, and appropriate. The design must be prepared before starting the research operation the need for Research Design can be explained in various points.
- Advance planning of the research is very essential without which the research may not yield the desired results.
- Research design is very important in order to get a reliable result.
- The need for a well thought out research design is not realized by many research don’t serve the purpose for which they are undertaken. Due to which they give a misleading conclusion. Therefore research design should be done with great care.
- Research design helps the researchers to organize his ideas in a proper form. It also provides the opportunity to evaluate the study.
- Research design is required for good understanding of the research. A Well written design demonstrates that the research has a good understanding of nature and purpose of the research
- Research Design is needed because of it faculties Max information with a maximum expenditure of efforts time and money.
Parts of research design:
- Sampling design:- It deals with the method of selecting item which should be considered for adopting study.
- Observation design:- It relates to the condition under which observation is to be made.
- Statical design:- It corners with the question of how many items to be observed and how information and data gathered is to be analyzed.
- Operational style:- It subsumes the techniques by that the procedures laid out in the sampling applied math and empirical design may be distributed.
Features of research design
- It should be flexible appropriate efficient and economical.
- Good Research Design should be minimum bias and maximum base the reliability of the data collected.
- The design should give the smallest experimental error.
- A design should yield maximum information and should provide an opportunity to consider different aspects of a research problem.
- Good design should be suitable for the purpose or objective of the research problem.
- Good Research Design should be given due Weightage availability of time money skills of the research staff.
Important concepts relating to Research Design
- The dependent and independent variable
- Extraneous variable
- Control (the term control is used to refer to restrain experimental condition)
- At sea relationship (when the dependent variables aren’t free from the influence of extraneous variables)
X=Y+2Z ( extraneous do not affect the dependent factor)
What are the different categories of research designs?
The designs can be categorized as follows
- Research Design in case of exploration/formative research studies:- The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of Idea and insights. the Research Design for such studies must be fixable in order to consider different aspects of a problem Research Design can be done through the following methods.
- Survey of literature.
- Experience survey (practical experience, fields study)
- Analysis of insight stimulation (research wherein not much has been written there’s a little experience to serve as a guide)
- Research design in case of description and diagnostic research study:- Description research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or of a group, Diagnostic analysis studies verify the frequency with that one thing happens or its Association with one thing else. The Research Design for descriptive and diagnostic studies have a common requirement in this the research must be able to define clearly what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods it should not be biased and should provide maximum reliability the design in such studies must be rigid and not fixable.
- Research Design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies:- In such studies research test the hypothesis for a casual relationship between variable.
Example of research design:
- Research Design on the constitutional prohibition of child employment and incident of child labor.
- Research Designs on reservation policy for other backward classes.
- Also for the study on drugs addicts and their rehabilitation.
- For the prevention of food adulteration.
I – Issue
R – Rule
A – analysis
C – Conclusion
Extensive literature survey
The need for extensive literature survey
- literature survey is the survey and documentation of published and unpublished work in the area of specific interest to the research a good literature survey increase the reader competence ability and his background knowledge.
- Research much finds out what others have said and what literature is available on a topic selected for research.
- An important purpose of consulting literature is to gain sufficient theoretical and factual aspects so that there should not be duplication of efforts.
- Prior studies in the area of research chosen by a research provide knowledge about procedure and design so that a research can frame a better hypothesis and gain new knowledge.
- Another important advantage of the literature survey is that research can avoid mistake by learning from the experience of others.
Collection and interpretation of data
The task of data collection beings after the research process and research design. The research should keep in mind two type of data.
- Primary data
- Secondary data
Primary data are those which are collecting for the first time and is original in character. Primary data is collected during the course of experiments in experimental research. We can obtain primary data either with the help of observation or with the help of direct communication.
Two types of primary data earlier discussed Direct & Indirect.
Secondary data information is obtained from outside either from a published source or from someone else who has already worked on the subject. It can be broadly divided into two type Personal documents & published documents. In the legal field, legal commentaries, legal textbook, dictionary, digests, journal, treaties are generally used. Secondary data generally has significant persuasive value but does not bend.
Data: It may be referred to as facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.
Research tools: These can be sampling method, literature, software, interview, etc anything that can be used while going through research journey. The material gathered using research tools helps in substantiating the statements made in the hypothesis. Lawyers and research mainly use two major tool library and computers.
Some of the tools are:
- Data collection from the given population.
- Library:- books, periodically, documentary, material, encyclopedia, report, dictionary in the library are very essential in knowing the background of the problem to be investigated.
- Computer:- The use of computer has brought information evolution. This development is very significant from the research perspective as international documents, statutes can be studies easily and are helpful in the comparative study.
- Interview:- Interview with prominent personalities in which they talk about themselves their personalities experience and their views on a particular issue. It can be a personal or telephonic interview.
- Questionnaire & schedule:- Questionnaire is a printed list of questions given to the person in order to get their feedback on a particular research problem. The question should be chosen very intelligently so that feedback proves to be very helpful in research.
Schedule means questions field in a face to face situation.
George A. Lundberg: according to him a hypothesis is a tentative generalization the validity of which remain to be tested. It may be a guess imaginative idea which becomes the basis for action or investigation.
Null hypothesis: When a hypothesis is stated negativity it is called a null hypothesis. e.g whether fast food affects the health of youngsters.
Formulating of hypothesis:
For any research, the tentative statement form should be very clear simple and definitely without any ambiguity. The only condition is that it should be empirically verifiable testable and comparable. It should be properly designed as it gives direction to the research. The background knowledge is very important in formulating of hypothesis.
* According to L. S stabbing every hypothesis springs from the knowledge and sagacity.
Hence three things are very important in hypothesis:-
Stages in formulating of hypothesis
- The research has to first observe the phenomenon
- It should identify the reflection
- Also should logically deduct the fact relating to the phenomenon
- And should keep it ready for verification with the empirical situation
Interpretation of data
After the data have been collected and processed the research reaches the stage of analysis and interpretation. Interpretation is the search for a broader and more abstract meaning of the research findings. It is the process which unravels the abstract that lies buried in the concert.
After analysis, the data generalization in the form of a statement is made. A generalization according to Meghan is a proposition that relates to two or more events so that some or all of the member of one class is also a member of the other. For a generalization, it is necessary that it’s based on observation or emperor experience.
After generalization, the research complete the fieldwork and all other stages of his study.
Small projects writing (steps)
- Formulating project topics:- Research needs to see whether the project topic is apt or not whether it is too narrow or too broad, what is the scope of the topics chosen? Is it relevant in the current situation?
- Literature survey:- The research on the topic. The information might change the focus of the research. He might find a more interesting aspect of the same topic.
- Construction of an outline:- after gathering information research is in a position to form an outline which will help him to organize his thought.
- Write the first draft:- The source should be properly the material should be copied but should be in one’s own words for a proper understanding of the reader, it should be organized properly.
- Write the final draft and add conclusion and bibliography.in the last step the project should be formatted properly according to the rules and guidelines.
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